Category: Raspberry PI


VIDEO Demo :


Relay module boards play an important role in Home automation projects. Generally we connect the load ( fan,light,etc…) to be controlled through the Relay contacts . While is the relay is controlled ON/OFF , IN TURN the load is controlled through the relay contacts.

Different types of relay modules are available .

In this post we explore the best Relay module suitable to use with Raspberry PI.



Relay modules are available in 12v & 5v .The best one for RPI is 5V Relay Module with Opto coupler drive.

This type of relay boards have opto coupler & NPN transistor to control the relays. Each relay is controlled by an opto+transistor combInation.



When a LOW is applied to INPUT , say IN1 , the photo diode inside optocoupler conducts which in turn activates the photo transistor inside the opto.

The NPN TRANSISTOR after the opto coupler is triggered which in turn switches ON the relay.




On board a Jumper is provided between JD_VCC & Vcc .While the jumper is ON & Vcc is provided with 5v , the board operates normally. When LOW is at input , the relay is ON. The problem arises when connected to RPI whose GPIO pins are at 3.3v level.

When a HIGH is applied from RPI , THERE WILL BE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE OF 5V – 3.3V = 1.7V which causes the board relay to chatter or malfunction.

So while using with Raspberry PI always remove the jumper & provide 5V to JD_VCC   & 3.3V to Vcc.

Both these voltages can be directly connected from the RPI itself. No separate power source required for Relay board. In RPI 3.3V is capable of only 50 milli amp sourcing current.

This 3.3v is connected to Vcc of Relay board which drives only the photo diode of opto coupler.So  a small current is enough.

The 5V rail of RPI is capable of sourcing much more current. It depends on the power adapter used for RPI less the current consumed by the RPI itself . 500MilliAmps can be easily sourced at this 5v point of RPI.

Let us now connect PI with 4 channel relay board.


JD_VCC              5v

VCC                  3.3V

IN1                   Pin 32

GND                 GND

Ethernet cable is connected between PC & RPI,&  PI is accessed from PC through SSH client PUTTY

Refer my previous blog on how to access PI from PC




LOG IN using default user name pi &password raspberry

To test python commands start the python interpreter by typing command


By default, Raspbian Stretch version  uses Python 2. However, versions 2 and 3 come installed by default. We just have to make 1 minor change so that the Pi uses Python 3 whenever we type python into a terminal.

In a terminal window, enter the following command:

nano ~/.bashrc

Scroll down to the bottom, and add the following command to the file:

alias python=’/usr/bin/python3′

Exit out of nano by pressing ctrl+x, press the y key when prompted if you want to save the file, and press the enter key.

you can  run the contents of the .bashrc script by entering:

source ~/.bashrc

Now check the version of Python

python –version

Just type in python to get the INTERPRETER  symbol >>>

Now you can test python commands one by one.




First import RPi.GPIO module

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO

Functions are called Modules in Python. Note the casing of letters used RP in capitals & i in small case .We also use alias name GPIO , so that further in code you just need to mention GPIO instad of RPi.GPIO

To specify which pin configuration you are using type


There are two ways of numbering the IO pins on a Raspberry Pi within RPi.GPIO. The first is using the BOARD numbering system. This refers to the pin numbers on the P1 header of the Raspberry Pi board. The advantage of using this numbering system is that your hardware will always work, regardless of the board revision of the RPi. You will not need to rewire your connector or change your code.

The second numbering system is the BCM numbers. This is a lower level way of working – it refers to the channel numbers on the Broadcom SOC. You have to always work with a diagram of which channel number goes to which pin on the RPi board. Your script could break between revisions of Raspberry Pi boards.

To detect which pin numbering system has been set (for example, by another Python module):

mode = GPIO.getmode()

The mode will be GPIO.BOARD, GPIO.BCM or None


Physical pin 32 is set as OUTPUT using


Pin 32 is initially made HIGH so that relay is OFF


To make the Relay ON , set pin 32 to LOW


At the end any program, it is good practice to clean up any resources you might have used.

To clean up at the end of your script:


Note that GPIO.cleanup() also clears the pin numbering system in use.

Now let us connect other Relay inputs to RPI

PIN 36 to IN2

PIN 38 to IN3

PIN 40 toIN4

Open NANO editor by typing

sudo nano

Feed in the following code.

Note the usage of Indentation for try block.

You can press TAB key to introduce blank space indentation whichis equal to braces in PYTHON.



import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import time






# main loop

      print "First Reay ON"
     print "Second Relay ON"
     print "Third Relay ON"
     print "Fourth Relay ON"
    print "Good bye!"

except  KeyboardInterrupt:




Press CTRL+X  to quit & press Y to save the file.

To execute the file


The Relays will be switched ON one by one & finally all Relays will be OFF , according to code.




The single channel relay boards are  different. Some boards have OPTO Coupler & some

do not have opto.

    r1                r2

The board with opto is HIGH enabled. A HIGH is required at IN to switch ON relay.

The board without OPTO is LOW enabled . A LOW is applied at IN to switch ON Relay.

Jumper is not seen on these single relay boards.

Always use 3.3v to Vcc in these single channel relay boards.



This post is on interfacing GSM with Raspberry PI 3  B or B+.

UART is commonly used on the Pi as a convenient way to control it over the GPIO, or access the kernel boot messages from the serial console (enabled by default).

It can also be used as a way to interface GSM / GPS /Arduino / ESP8266, etc with your Pi.

Be careful with logic-levels between the devices , for example the Pi is 3.3v and the GSM is 5v.




In the previous versions of PI GPIO Serial port is mapped to /dev/ttyAMA0

(COM1 equivalent is found on pins 14 and 15 of the GPIO header and is called /dev/ttyAMA0  )

But in PI 3 B or B+ this hardware port has been utilized for the BLUETOOTH Functionality.

/dev/ttyAMA0 is a hardware , high performance serial port (uart) & used for the Bluetooth

A second port is partly software /dev/ttyS0 & is assigned to GPIO Serial port.

So , the ports on a Raspberry Pi 3  are


/dev/ttyAMA0 -> Bluetooth
/dev/ttyS0 -> GPIO serial port   (referred to as the “mini uart”).


Thus on a Raspberry Pi 3 serial0 will point to GPIO pins 14 and 15 and use the “mini-uart” ( /dev/ttyS0).

On older Raspberry Pi’s  it will point to the hardware UART and /dev/ttyAMA0.

Image A


To start with write the  RASPBIAN image OS on a class 10 memory card using ETCHER



Use the SD card on RPI 3 & log in

To know the Serial ports enabled  , type in

cd /dev   & then  ls –l


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You can see only the ttyAMA0 is enabled & not the  mini uart  ttyS0

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The GPIO serial port is disabled by default. In order to enable it, edit config.txt:

$ sudo nano /boot/config.txt

and add the line (at the bottom):


Reboot for the changes to take effect.

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Restart the Putty SSH

Now check the   cd /dev  ,  ls –l    again

You can see both the ports enabled. Note that this can be done through raspi-config also.

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Let us connect the GSM with PI now.



The logic levels of PI are at 3.3 volts & it is risky to connect directly with a 5v level GSM pin.

The Tx pin (pin 8 , GPIO14) of PI can be directly connected to Rx of GSM. As GSM accepts 3.3volt level as high , this connection is straight without level shifting.

However the Rx pin (pin 10, GPIO 15) of PI cannot be connected directly to Tx of GSM.

A simple level shifter using a signal diode 1N4148 &  a 10k resistor is used in between as shown below



When the level at GSM Tx is LOW , the diode is forward biased & the Rx of PI gets LOW.

When the level at GSM Tx is HIGH ,the diode is Reverse biased & the 3.3v is available at Rx of PI through the resistor.

A separate power source 12v 1 amp is required for GSM , and the GND pins of PI & GSM are made common.

Be cautious while connecting with PI pins , as any wrong connection will render the PI defective.

After powering the GSM wait for the network. The network LED blinks fast initially  & after getting Network it blinks slowly.

You can also call to the SIM number used on the GSM to get a ring back tone.

Now the set upis ready.

Let us install  a Serial monitor called picocom on PI to test the AT commands.


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Start the picocom with baud rate 9600 & at portttyS0

picocom –baud 9600 /dev/ttyS0

Note the double hyphen before baud .

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You get Terminal Ready

after which you can type in AT to get an OK response.

If you cannot seewhat you type,or if no response then check the GSM for network &also check the port name you’ve typed.

It must be /dev/ttyS0 .      S is capital letter & then zero.

Now you can make a call using ATDxxxxx; command , terminate a call using ATH

Send SMS using AT+CMGF=1 , & test other AT commands


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Now let us use PYTHON to make a call.

Open a file named using

sudo nano


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Type in following code & then CTRL+X , to exit & Yes to save.

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While using AT command inside Python code , notice the usage of carriage return

\r  after each command    like ATDxxx; \r

To execute the file


You can see the number being called & then hangs up using ATH command.

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Now let us create a python code for sending SMS.

Notice the usage of  double quotes for sending AT commands

Also, note that single quotes used if the AT command needs to send double quotes

as in AT+CMGS command

Image 14


To execute type in


You can see the sms being sent to the phone number used in code.

Image 17

Support VIDEO :




In my previous post I’ve explained the method  of connecting Raspberry PI with  Laptop through Ethernet.

At times , the PI is not recognized , or unable to contact over SSH in this method.

Let us see the DIRECT NETWORK LINK method In this post which is 100% reliable.Cons is that network internet is not shared.But this is not an issue , as PI3 is WIFI capable through which you can connect to internet.



To start with , place the SD card ( class 10 type recommended ) with Raspbian OS on to a Card Reader


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The card will be shown as boot drive.Open it.

Under View , un tick the option “ File Name Extension”


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Now Right click on empty space & create a new text document.

Rename it to ssh & save it.

Now a file named ssh is created without any file extension

When the card is now used on RPI, on first boot the OS will look out for the ssh file name.If it finds one , it enables secure shell & then delete the file named ssh.

This is how SSH is enabled in a Headless mode operation of RPI.

Image 3

Place the SD card on to PI & power it up.

Now Open Network& Sharing center on your Windows PC.

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Connect the Ethernet port of RPI to the Ethernet port of your PC using a STRAIGHT RJ45 Cable.

An Unidentified Network is created for the Ethernet adapter where PI is connected .


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Click on the Network connection type ,( here mine is WIFI.)

Click properties




Under SHARING Tab un tick the options so that Network sharing is DISABLED.




Click on the ETHERNET connection & then Properties on next window.

Double click Internet Protocol 4 & ensure that DHCP is enabled i.e, Obtain IP address automatically is selected.

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For a network link to work between two computers they need to be using the same address range.
The allowable address range is determined by the subnet mask.  means all octets in addresses should be same except for the last two in the IP address,otherwise they will be filtered.

Most PCs connected directly to another computer will allocate an IP address in the range 169.254.x.x ( with subnet mask of

For RPI to be able to communicate through the direct link it needs to have a fixed IP address in the same address range 169.254.x.x

We can set this in the cmdline.txt file

To know the IP allotted to the ETHERNET adapter

Open Command Prompt ,CMD

Type in ipconfig /all

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Scroll down to find the IP under Ethernet adapter.

Here it is

which is the Gateway IP of Ethernet adapter.Any device connected to this port should have the IP in range 169.254.192.x

As we’ve connected the PI to Ethernet adapter  let us assign the IP toPI as

Note that the last octet can be anything up to 255.

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The static IP to PI is assigned as follows :

Switch off power to PI ,remove SD card & place it on a card reader.

Open cmdline file found in the SD card

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Move to the End of file.

Please note that you must not hit Enter .

Just at the end type in


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Save the file .Remove SD card from card reader & plug it to PI & power it up.

Let us use the free SSH Client PUTTY  to log intoPI.

Open PUTTY &  under Session , type in the IP address

Ensure that SSH is selected.


Image 14


Click open

Now you get the LOG IN window of PI

login as pi & password : raspberry


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Now ,let us see how to log in Graphical user interface.

For this a XMING X Server is required.

Download XMING from here

Install XMING & start the server.

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Open Putty & as done previously enter the IP address

Under SSH click X11

& then Tick mark Enable X11 forwarding.


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Click Open to get the login window of PI.

To get Graphical interface , type in


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Now you get the graphical screen

To get internet access :

Under  SYSTEM TOOLS  click LXTerminal

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Type in

sudo raspi-config

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Select Network Options

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Select WI FI

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Then enter  SSID of your WIFI to connect with


Image 24


Provide the password for thee SSID

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Now you get the internet accesswhich can be tested by

sudo apt-get update.


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Generally Raspberry PI is connected to a Router as an individual computer.In case you do not have access to your Router you can very well connect PI to Laptop through an ETHERNET STRAIGHT Cable.

The available RJ45 cable in the market is mostly STRAIGHT cable & not CROSS OVER one.

Before connecting the PI to Laptop , open your Network & sharing center & click on your Internet connection.Mine is on Wireless Network


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On the next screen click on the  properties button.


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Under SHARING tab Tick mark “Allow other network users…..”

Click OK to enable Network SHARING.

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Now let us enable SECURED SHELL – SSH on Raspberry PI OS , so that it can be accessed over network.

This can be done by connecting RPI to a HDMI TV & a keyboard.

Under terminal open RASPI-CONFIG & enable SSH under Advanced options.

But in this post I consider a Headless mode , presuming that you do not have access to a TV or keyboard.You need a CARD READER for this purpose.

Place the SD card with Raspbian OS on to the card reader & plug it to ypur laptop.

Note down the Drive letter allotted.Here it is I:\  in my case


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Run CMD & type in following

echo >I:\ssh

Now a file named ssh without any extension is created under \boot.

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Image 3

While PI is booted up then , it looks out for the file named ssh.

If it finds one , it enables SSH & then deletes the file you created.

This is how SSH is enabled in the new Raspbian OS.By default SSH is disabled in new OS for security reasons.

Plug the SD card on to PI & connect the ETHERNET cable to Laptop’s RJ45 slot.

Power up the PI to see a new Unidentified network .

Image 7

Click on that new Local Area Connection that appears & then click properties.

On the next screen , double click on Internet Protocol Version 4(TCP/IPv4)


Image 8

Now you see the IP address of the new Network created.

Here it is which is the GATEWAY IP of the new Network.

PI will be allotted IP within this range

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To know the IP of RPI we make use of ADVANCED IP SCANNER

Download from here & install the scanner

Open the IP Scanner program & type in the Range to scan as to

Image 11

Click on the scan button.

The IP scanner will detect the Raspberry PI & displays its IP along with host name & MAC address.

The host name is   & the IP is

Image 12

You can use either the host name or the IP to access the PI.

We make use of an X Forwarding software called MOBAXTERM for a Graphical Interface.

You can use XMING server , but a separate SSH client like PUTTY is needed for that.

MOBAXTERM is a standalone freeware with an inbuilt SSH Client.

Download the X Server

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Fire up the MobaXterm_Personal application.

Image 14

Click on SESSION & then SSH

Image 15


Under Remote Host type in the host name of RPI



or you can use the IP address of PI we obtained from IP Scanner earlier.

Image 16

Now you get the login window.

Login username is pi & password is raspberry

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Now you are logged into Raspberry PI & you get the ~$ prompt

Image 18


To open Graphical interface , type in



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You get a warning message SSH is ON .

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Click OK to see the DEBIAN SWIRL desktop.


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To enable WIFI & internet access , watch this video :



cooltext753793315  cooltext753790696



TOUCH screen LCDs are now available for use with Raspberry PI.

7 Inch LCDs work straight from the box as soon as you plug it onto your PI.No driver is required , but the touch response is poor & screen width is not full.

This post walks you through the steps of installing proper Drivers for touch to work smoothly & also installation of virtual keyboard is introduced.

The 7 inch LCD used here has a resolution of 800 x 480 pixels & the screen is Capacitive Touch.

HDMI interface is provided for Display &  USB interface for touch control. Both the HDMI & USB cables are provided in the box.

Connect the HDMI cable to the HDMI port of Raspberry PI & THE USB cable to any one port of the RPI.Slide the mini switch to ON position.

Provide a 5v 2Amp power source to the RPI , no separate power is required for the LCD

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7in_1    7in_3


Connect the RJ45 cable from the Internet providing Router to the RJ45 jack of Raspberry PI.In case of PI3 also this internet connection is a must for driver download & setup.Later you can switch on the WIFI on PI3 to connect with internet.

Insert the micro SD card with the latest RPI3 RASPBIAN Image on to the PI & switch ON the power.

You can see the initial screen is not Full screen. But interestingly , the touch will work.

Image 3


step 1 : CONFIG.txt editing to get FULL Screen Display :

To get the full screen display , you need to edit the CONFI.TXT file inside /boot folder.You can remove the SD card & plug it to PC using a card reader.

Open the folder & look out for the CONFIG.TXT file .Open this file using Wordpad or Notepad++.

Scroll down to the end of the file & append these lines :

Image 4


Setting max_usb_current=1 sets the available current over USB to 1.2A (default is 600mA)
This can help if you have a decent power supply (2A, at least) and need to power the external Touch screen display.

For supporting HDMI modes that aren’t from the official CEA/DMT list of modes
use  hdmi_mode=87

& then define the CVT – Coordinated Video Timings

The  hdmi_cvt 800 400 60 6 0 0 0
defines the timings of the component video signal

hdmi_cvt=<width> <height> <framerate> <aspect> <margins> <interlace> <rb>
width        width in pixels
height       height in pixels
framerate    framerate in Hz
aspect       aspect ratio 1=4:3, 2=14:9, 3=16:9, 4=5:4, 5=16:10, 6=15:9
margins      0=margins disabled, 1=margins enabled
interlace    0=progressive, 1=interlaced


Save this changes.Remove the SD card & plug it to RPI.

On rebooting you can find the FULL SCREEN display , but sadly the TOUCH performance will degrade. The touch selection will not be the one you insisted on touch.

To solve this problem you need to install the drivers.


step 2 : TOUCH DRIVER DOWNLOAD & Preparation

To install the Drivers , open the browser on PI & browse to

Scroll down to the driver section & download the driver which says




Click on the link to Download.

By default the tar file will be downloaded to  /root/Downloads


Using FILE MANAGER locate this folder & copy the downloaded tar file.

Now paste this file under /home/pi/Downloads

Right click the file & click on Extract Here..  to unzip the file.




Now you can see the unzipped folder.

Copy the PATH to this folder or note down the path , as we need it to install from within the Terminal.





Open the Terminal & change directory to the PATH copied as in above step.

The path is  /home/pi/Downloads

Note the capital D in Downloads , as Linux is case sensitive.

To list the contents use ls  command

The list will display the folder LCD-show which contains the driver we need.



Change Directory to LCD-show.

ls to list the contents

LCD-800×480-show  is the driver we need to install.



To install use the command  dot forward slash LCD7-800×480-show



The RPI will Reboot automatically & displays Full Screen.

Now try the TOUCH Functionality.It will be breeze to use the touch now, after driver installation.


step 4 : VIRTUAL KEYBOARD Installation

Now is the time to install the virtual keyboard .This avoids the physical keyboard & is a must for a touch screen.

Under Terminal type in

sudo apt-get install matchbox-keyboard

The keyboard installation starts.

When prompted , enter y to continue.



Once the installation is over you can see the KEYBOARD under Accessories.



If the KEYBOARD Icon is not seen under Accessories , click on

Preferences —> Main Menu Editor.


Under Main Menu Editor , put a tick mark against KEYBOARD.

A reboot is required.


Now open the KEYBOARD & enjoy.



Watch this demo VIDEO :


5 inch TOUCH SCREEN for RPI :–hdmi.html


cooltext753793315    cooltext753790696




HDMI to VGA converter is a low cost solution to connect VGA monitor with PI.This needs no external power supply & no settings to do.It supports VGA output upto 1080I (60Hz).As VGA doesn’t support audio,this converter has no audio output.


Remove the SD card loaded with Raspbian Operating System & plug it into your Laptop.For Desktop you need to use a Card Reader.Open the folder to locate CONFIG.TXT file.

If you open this text file with conventional Notepad , you can see that the display is not arranged & difficult to understand.

Download NOTEPAD++ here  & install it.

Open the Config.txt file with Notepad++ to see the contents arranged neatly.

Scroll down to locate following entries.You’ve to uncomment these entries by removing the #  mark

in front of the command.






The first one to uncomment is hdmi_force_hotplug=1  which forces Raspberry PI to use the HDMI port.If it’s set to 0 then your PI will attempt to detect the type of Display.

The second one to uncomment is hdmi_group=1 & then change this value to 2.

There are two Groups for HDMI.

Group 1 is defined by CEA – Consumer Electronics Association of America.When PI is connected to High Definition Television over HDMI this Group is used.

Group 2 is DMT (Display Monitor Timing) defined by Video Electronics Students Association (VESA) & is used when PI is connected to computer monitors.

As we’re connecting PI to a monitor , set this Group to 2.

Next one to uncomment  is the hdmi_mode=2  & change this value to 16.

Each Group (CEA & DMT) defines its own modes.As we’ve set the Group to 2 this value of 16 represents a resolution of 1024 x 768 at 60Hz.

A value of 28  represents 1280 x 800 at 60Hz

& a value of 35 represents 1280 x 1024 at 60Hz.

This value has to be set according to your monitor size & type.Refer here for values of different modes.

Finally uncomment the entry hdmi_drive=2 and leave the value to 2.This is to alter voltage output by HDMI port.For DVI output voltages set this to 1.

Save the changes & remove the SD card from the Laptop.Plug it to PI & power it to see PI boot window on the VGA monitor.

Following settings may also be of interest :


This setting can be varied from 1 to 7 according to the length of HDMI cable you’re using.For long cables set this value to 7.


This setting  forces PI to use a preset collection of HDMI setting which equals to (hdmi_force_hotplug=1 , config_hdmi_boost=4 , hdmi_group=1 , hdmi_mode=1 , disable_overscan=0)


Watch this support Video :


HDMI TO VGA Converter with Raspberry PI


cooltext753793315  cooltext753790696


In the previous post we’ve seen how to control Raspberry PI from Windows PC using SSH (Secured SHell).The disadvantage in this mode is that SSH is Text only mode (Text User Interface).You can control your PI in Command mode only.Graphical User Interface (GUI) is  not possible.

For GUI control we shall use TIGHTVNC server.

TightVNC is a free remote control software package. With TightVNC, you can see the desktop of a remote machine like Raspberry PI and control it with your local mouse and keyboard, just like you would do it sitting in the front of PI.


RASPBERRY PI side settings :

The Raspberry PI should be connected through a RJ45 cable to a Router which is providing Local Network connections .

To start with install the TightVNC server on your PI by typing in the following command inside the LX terminal.

sudo apt-get install tightvncserver


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Press  “y” to confirm installation.

After installation you should get back the pi@raspberrypi ~ $ prompt.

To start the server type in

sudo tightvncserver

First time user should enter an 8 character password.

Let us provide a password ,say ,   tightvnc  

For view only password enter “n”

Now you get a response like “New ‘X’ desktop is raspberry:1 “.

Note down this number, as you’ve to enter this along with Raspberry PI’s IP address to get connection.


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To know the IP address of Raspberry PI type in


The address after inet addr :  is the IP address of PI

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Windows PC side settings :


Download TIGHTVNC for 32 bit Windows PC here

For 64 bit Windows Laptop/PC download from here

Click the downloaded file to start installation.

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As an add on for a good GUI performance install the DFMirage mirror display driver.

DFMirage mirror display driver allows TightVNC to gain the best performance under Windows. With DFMirage, TightVNC Server can detect screen updates and grab pixel data in a very efficient way.

Download DFMirage driver from here.

Double click the .exe file to install the driver.

Once the installation is completed you can see the TIGHTVNC folder under All Programs of Start menu.


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Click on “TightVNC Viewer “ to start the New Connection .

Under Remote host enter the IP address of Raspberry PI ( as known by typing ifconfig under PI’s terminal).

This IP address should be followed by a colon and 5901 .

While starting VNC under Raspberry PI we’ve seen the following message

“New X desktop is raspberry:1”

If it is 2 then you’ve to enter 5902 after the IP address.


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Click on Connect & provide the 8 character password we’ve created for VNC on the PI (it is tightvnc)

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Now you can see the Raspberry PI on your Windows.

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This is GUI interface & you can work as if you were in front of a Raspberry PI terminal. 

Watch the Support video :


Control your Raspberry PI from a Windows PC





This is a six piece laser cut box for your PI.It has dragon claws to fix and no need of any screws or bolts.It is a must to protect your PI .If you accidentally place your PI on any conductive surface ,PI may go defective beyond repairable.

So make your PI safe with this little cute classic box.




The case comes as 6 pieces that snap together, made of crystal-clear acrylic. You can use all of the connectors on the edges of the Pi: HDMI, Audio, Video, SD slot, micro USB power, Ethernet and the two USB ports.

The enclosure is designed so that you can remove the top piece and plug any sort of cables you wish into the breakouts in the middle.



Watch this Assembly video :


Raspberry PI Housing


SSH is a secure method of logging onto a remote computer. If your Pi is networked then this can be a handy way of operating it from another computer or just copying files to or from it.

SSH  is Secured SHell .

First you have to install the SSH service.

The wheezy Raspbian OS  comes with SSH telnet access enabled, and this is a great way to get terminal access to your Raspberry Pi over network ,without having to hook it up to a monitor and keyboard.

All you need is to connect your Raspberry Pi to power and an internet connection.

Open the LXTerminal & type in   sudo raspi-config


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The list of set up options is displayed.Move down to select Advanced Options.

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Under Advanced Options window select SSH.

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Enable the SSH service

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Click on OK & then FINISH.

Reboot your PI.

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To connect PI over network you should know the IP address of PI.

You can type in  either of the following command to learn the address.



ip addr show



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By default the Raspberry Pi will be allocated an IP address by your router. However, next time you power it up the router may allocate a different IP address. This is a problem because in order to connect through SSH we need to know the Raspberry Pi’s IP address on your local network, and we can’t see this if we don’t have a monitor attached.

There is a  a great free tool called Advanced IP Scanner to find out the IP address.

Download it from

Run the tool & click on Scan button.

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You can see the PI detected on network.Note down the IP address.

Now we shall see how to connect to PI from a distant computer.We make use of PuTty software .This is an excellent software that works on Windows  as well as Linux platforms.

Download PuTty from here :

Open the PuTty terminal & under host name enter the IP address of Raspberry PI.

Ensure that port is 22 & connection type is SSH.

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Click on Open

The PI is contacted over Network & it’ll ask for login & password.

Enter login as :   pi

password as  : raspberry

, all in small letters.

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You get the prompt pi@raspberrypi ~ $

where pi is the username

raspberrypi is the host name

~  is the current working directory of shell

$  is the shell prompt.

Now you can issue commands as if you are in front of PI.

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Important Note  :

The address range starting 192.168.x.x  are purely for use on LOCAL NETWORKS only.

It is non routable & someone on other side of router (on internet) cannot directly access that address.


Watch this support video :


Control Raspberry PI from a distant PC over Network



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The Raspberry Pi is a credit-card sized computer that plugs into your TV . It’s a capable little PC which can be used for many of the things that your desktop PC does, like spreadsheets, word-processing and games. It also plays high-definition video.A keyboard & a mouse can be connected to the dual USB port (type B) .

Raspberry PI comes in 2 models. Model  A  & Model B.

Model A has 256MB RAM, one USB port .There is no Ethernet on the Model A version

Model B has 512MB RAM, 2 USB ports and an Ethernet port.The Model B version of the device includes 10/100 wired Ethernet. But Wi-Fi will be available via a standard USB dongle.

Both models have HDMI connectivity. Beyond this, mice, keyboards, network adapters and external storage will all connect via a USB hub.You can also attach a USB stick or USB hard drive for storage.

The Raspberry Pi has a Broadcom BCM2835 SoC (System On Chip), which includes an ARM11 700 MHz processor (ARM1176JZF-S) & and a Videocore 4 GPU. The GPU is capable of BluRay quality playback, using H.264 at 40MBits/s. It has a fast 3D core accessed using the supplied OpenGL ES2.0 and OpenVG libraries.

The RAM is a POP package on top of the SoC, so it’s not removable or swappable.You cannot add extra RAM.

It does not include a built-in hard drive. An SD card is used for  booting and  storage.

When you order for a Raspberry PI you will get only the Board..  The power supply & SD card are not included  & to be purchased separately.

There is composite as well as  HDMI out on the board, so you can hook it up to an old analog TV, to a digital TV . There is no VGA support, but adaptors are available, although these are relatively expensive.There’s a standard 3.5mm jack for audio out. You can add any supported USB microphone for audio in.

The device is powered by 5v micro USB.

The OS is stored on the SD card.There are many Distros available ,but Debian is the default distribution. It’s straightforward to replace the root partition on the SD card with another ARM Linux distro if you want to use something else

By default, Python is supported as the educational language.  Java is also supported.

At present  Ubuntu can’t commit to support Raspberry Pi .Also Android is not stable enough with PI.

However development work is continuing on these platforms.

Now let us see how to install the OS on to the SD card. SD cards up to 32GB can be used.

We shall make use of 8GB micro SD card.You need an adapter to hold this micro sd card , so that it can match the slide slot of Raspberry PI.

The wheezy-Raspian is a stable OS for Raspberry PI. Recently NOOBS is available ,which is a collection of 5 operating systems.You can download NOOBS & select any one OS to install.As it is a huge download of over 1GB we shall stick on to raw image of wheezy-raspbian.

Download it from :

It is easier to fuse OS on to SD card from within a Windows PC.For this you need a win32disk imager tool .Get it from

These two are to be kept ready before starting fusing of OS.

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Place the micro SD card in to the SD adapter .Plug this on to a Card Reader & then plug it on to your PC.

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Now start the WIN32 Disk Imager. The SD card is detected as an USB device .Here it is drive I:\

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Click the browse button ( a file icon) & browse to the location where you’ve stored the image file.Select the image file & click Open.

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Now click on Write to start loading the OS on to the SD card.

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You can see the Progress window in action.

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Once Write is completed , click on OK.


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Remove the SD card from the card reader.Slide it on to the slot at the back of Raspberry PI.Connect an USB Keyboard & mouse to the USB ports at PI.

We can connect the PI to an old TV through the yellow RCA connector of PI. This is the composite video output from Raspberry PI .A RCA cable can be used to connect this pin to the Video IN of your TV.This connector is also yellow in color on your TV (AV IN).

For demo purpose we’re making use of a small 7 inch LCD monitor with AV IN capability.

Now power up the Raspberry PI with 5V /2Amp adapter (micro usb type ).

You can see on the screen , Raspbian booting up.


Following are the one time initial settings to be made.Settings are made through the Keyboard connected to the PI.

First option is “Expand File system “.

Select this to use the full storage area of the SD card.On next reboot this allocation will be done.

Next is the “Change User Password “.If you need to change the user password , select this & proceed as directed.

The third one is the most required one “ Enable Boot to Desktop”.

Select that & press Enter.


On the next screen Select  “Desktop log in as user pi at the graphical desktop”.



Other options are for Language & regular settings,Enable camera,Overclocking & Advanced settings like Host name,SSH,SPI ,Update ,etc.,

Click on Finish to boot Raspberry PI on to Graphical Desktop.



To connect with Internet use a RJ45 cable to connect to Ethernet port of Raspberry PI  to the Router/Modem which is providing Network connection.

Under Start –> Internet – > NetSurf Webbrowser is provided which is the default browser for PI.



Under Programming –> you see IDLE which is the IDE to develop Python scripts.




Watch this support Video :


Raspberry PI–Getting Started