AVR – ATMEGA16 – EXTERNAL INTERRUPTS

Interrupts in AVR can be external (port pin sensing) or internal (Timers,ADC,UART,etc..)

When Interrupt occurs , the following things are done by AVR

1. AVR controller stops the current program execution and saves the context.

2.  Control jumps to Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). (Each interrupt have an associated ISR which is a piece of code executed when an interrupt occurs.)

3.  Execution of ISR is performed automatically..

4.  When ISR is complete, the Controller resumes processing where it left off before the interrupt occurred.(main program resumes)

Interrupt sources of AVR are

PORT PINS INT0 (PD2), INT1 (PD3) , INT2 (PB2) & RESET

RESET is unmaskable interrupt & has the highest priority.

Other interrupt sources are Internal to AVR like -Timer , UART , ADC ,SPI , I2C ,etc..

This post is on the PORT PIN Interrupts i.e., EXTERNAL INTERRUPT

EXT_INT

Let us connect an LED at PD0 & a switch at PD2.

PD2 is where Interrupt INT0 is sensed.

PD0 – LED

PD2 – SWITCH

 

LED_SW

Steps to configure the Interrupt:

————————————-

1. Set INT0 bit in the General Interrupt Control Register (GICR)

2. Configure MCU Control Register (MCUCR) to select interrupt type( let us configure for Falling edge).

3. Set Global Interrupt(I-bit) Enable bit in the AVR Status Register(SREG) sei()

4. Handle the interrupt in the Interrupt Service Routine code.

———————————-

 

General Interrupt Control Register (GICR)

In the GICR register enable the bit6 which configures INT0 Interrupt

It’s a good practice to mention the bit name itself in the code

GICR |= (1<<INT0) ;

Here we use the left shift operator to make the bit INT0 as 1

image

 

Type of INTERRUPT ( Rising Edge or Falling edge) is decided by setting bits 0 & 1of MCUCR Register

The MCUCR contains configuration bits which tells what signals will trigger INT0 and INT1

For this you need to set the ISC bits ( Interrupt Sense Control )

ISC00 & ISC01 configures the INT0 interrupt type.These are bits 0 & 1.

 

image

As seen in fig. above set this to Falling edge trigger by making ISC01 as 1.

MCUCR |= (1<< ISC01) ; (or you can also write MCUCR =0x02;)

Mentioning the bit name is always a good practice in coding

Now the Interrupt on INT0 is Falling edge-triggered (meaning that the interrupt is triggered when the signal changes from high to low)

image

We’ve connected a Reset type micro switch at PD2. When the switch is pressed 1 is applied to PD2 & when switch is released 0 is applied .Falling edge level triggering is from High to Low edge.

MCUCR is to configure INT0 & INT1 Interrupts.

 

INT2 is configured by another Register MCUCSR

INT2 can only be used as an edge-triggered interrupt.(no level trigger)

image

 

Now enable the Global Interrupt by setting the I-bit in SREG

It is the master control for all interrupts in AVR micro-controller.

This is done by calling sei();

When Interrupt occurs the ISR – Interrupt Service Routine is called automatically.Inside the ISR function we toggle the LED state.

ISR(INT0_vect)

{

PORTD ^= (1<<0);

}

The vector name used in this ISR is INT0_vect

Correct vector name to be used in the ISR function .Select it from the table below :

image

 

Complete code

—————————————————-

#include <avr/io.h>

#include <avr/interrupt.h>

int main (void)

{

DDRD = (1<< 0) ; // PORT pin PD0 is Output

PORTD | = (1<<0); // PD0 is High normally

GICR = (1<< INT0); // enable INT0 Interrupt

MCUCR |= (1<< ISC01) ; // configure Falling Edge Trigger

sei(); // Enable Global Interrupt

while(1) {}

}

ISR(INT0_vect) // Interrupt Service Routine

{

PORTD ^= (1<<0);

}

———————————————

 

We use Programmers Notepad of WINAVR to develop the C code.

Save the file as main.c inside a folder.

Open the MFILE utility of WINAVR to create the MFILE required for compilation.

Select the MCU type as ATMEGA16 , port as usb & programmer as usbasp.

Usbasp is not in the list of programmer.You need to select any one in the list & then Enable Editing.

Now you can edit your selection to usbasp

Save the MFILE in the same folder where you’ve stored the main.c file.

Click on Tools à MakeAll to compile & then Tools à Program to upload the hex file .

Now the LED at PD0 glows.

When switch connected to PD2 is pressed & then released , a Interrupt occurs (falling edge)

The LED at PD0 changes state to LOW.

Again press the switch & release , the LED changes state to HIGH.

VIDEO DEMO :

Links to previous posts :

https://alselectro.wordpress.com/2017/06/20/avr-self-learning-kit-getting-started/

https://alselectro.wordpress.com/2017/08/13/avr-self-learning-kit-interfacing-16-x-2-lcd-in-8-bit-mode/

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